Table of Contents
|Module 1 -General Microbiology||10 Marks|
|Module 2 – Biochemistry||10 Marks|
|Module 3 -Molecular Biology||10 Marks|
|Module 4 -Immunology||10 Marks|
|Module 5 – Food Microbiology||10 Marks|
|Module 6 -Industrial Microbiology||10 Marks|
|Module 7 – Medical Microbiology||10 Marks|
|Module 8- Dairy Microbiology||10 Marks|
|Module 9 -Fermentation technology||10 Marks|
|Module 10 -Bioinstrumentation||10 Marks|
Microbiologist in Food Safety Syllabus
✦Module 1 -General Microbiology
|History and scope of microbiology, |
Overview of microorganisms,
Classification of bacteria,
Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology,
Microbial culture collections.
Morphology and structure of bacteria,
Cultivation of bacteria- culture media and methods.
Aerobic and Anaerobic culture methods.
Identification of bacteria.
Cultural, physiological and biochemical properties.
Molecular methods for identification.
Culture preservation techniques,
General structure of viruses.
Cultivation of viruses- methods,
Fungi – properties and classification.
Microbial growth and factors affecting microbial growth,
Microbial growth curve,
Continuous and batch culture,
Diauxic and synchronous growth.
Measurement of bacterial growth,
nutritional types of bacteria.
Microbial locomotion – flagellar motility,
gliding motility and amoeboid motion.
Chemotaxis, Phototaxis and other taxes.
Sterilisation – Principle and methods,
physical and chemical methods.
Disinfectants – mode of action.
Testing of disinfectants.
Antibiotics – mechanism of action.
Drug resistance in bacteria and the mechanisms.
Antibiotic sensitivity tests
✦ Module 2 – Biochemistry
|Structure and functions of monosaccharides, |
disaccharides and oligosaccharides,
Polysaccharides – homoglycans and heteroglycans,
Glycolipids, Glycoproteins and Lectins.
Classification of lipids,
structure and functions of lipids,
Complex lipids phospholipids,
Ceramides and sphingomyelins.
Types and functions of plasma lipoproteins.
Amphipathic lipids –
emulsions and liposomes.
Steroids -cholesterol structure and biological role
-bile acids, bile salts.
Sterols in Plant system,
Sterols in microbial system.
Classification and functions of amino acids and proteins,
Isolation, fractionation and purification of proteins.
Denaturation and renaturation of proteins.
Primary, Secondary tertiary and quartenary structures of proteins,
Structure and function of Collagen and Hemoglobin,
Enzymes- Different classes and functions.
Classification of enzymes,
mechanism of enzyme action,
Estimation of enzyme activity,
Enzyme Inhibition and Types of Inhibition Structure of DNA,
types of DNA,
Higher order organization of DNA.
isolation and purification of DNA,
Cot value curve,
Structure and types of RNA,
Structure and function of mRNA,
tRNA and rRNA, Si RNA and micro RNA,
DNA sequencing methods,
next generation sequencing technologies.
Types, structure and biochemical functions of Vitamins,
deficiency diseases and daily requirements,
Hormones – types,
structure and biological role,
Mechanism of action of peptide and steroid hormones.
✦ Module 3 -Molecular Biology
|DNA replication, |
DNA polymerases of eukaryotes and prokaryotes,
repetitive DNA sequences,
DNA protein interaction,
DNA Linking number and topoisomerase,
Inhibition of replication.
RNA polymerases of prokaryotes and eukaryotes,
sigma factor, Rho dependant and Rho independent termination.
Differences in transcription between prokaryotes and Eukaryotes,
post transcriptional modifications Polyadenylation,
Rihozyme, inhibitors of Transcription.
Gene regulation in prokaryotes,
Transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes;
Inducible and repressible system,
structure of Lac,
Role of Hormones in gene regulation.
ribosomes in eukaryotes and prokaryotes,
aminoacyl t-RNA synthetases,
prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation,
inhibition of translation.
Post translation modifications,
Recombinant DNA Technology,
enzymes used in genetic engineering,
TA cloning, and homopolymer tailing,
Construction of genomic libraries and cDNA libraries,
recombinant selection and library screening,
PCR and types of PCR,
synthesis of DNA.
Plant genetic transformation methods,
Use of transgenic Technology for improving quality,
quantity and storage life of fruits and vegetables.
Engineering metabolic pathways,
Animal cell culture and methods used,
Ethics of cloning
✦ Module 4 -Immunology
|Infection- types of infection, |
Immunity- types of immunity.
Organs and cells with immune functions,
innate and adaptive immunity –
PAMPs and PRR Antigens,
Antigenicity and Immunogenicity,
Antibodies and paratopes,
classes and functions.
Western blotting Humoral and cell mediated immune response,
T cell receptor and B cell receptor,
Primary and secondary immune response,
Clonal selection theory,
Monoclonal antibodies –
production and application,
Biological effects of complements,
Antigen processing and presentation,
Human microbiome and immunity Immunology of organ and tissue transplantation,
Immunology of malignancy,
Immunotherapy of cancer,
ABO and Rh blood group system,
Immunology of blood transfusion,
Hemolytic disease of new born
✦ Module 5 – Food Microbiology
|Microorganisms associated with food, |
Factors influencing microbial growth in food,
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors,
implicit and processing factors,
Health benefit and mechanism of action of probiotics,
Microbial spoilage of food,
Food preservation –
physical and chemical methods of preservation,
natural food preservation Hurdle effect,
Lactic acid bacteria,
Homo and hetero fermentative lactic acid bacteria,
Microbiology of cultured dairy products,
cultured butter milk,
Kefir and microbiology of kefir grains,
structural model of casein micelle,
role of chymosin,
steps in cheese making with role of microorganisms,
types of cheese and cheese ripening.
Microorganisms in the preparation of traditional fermented food,
Microbial succession during production of fermented vegetables,
Manufacture of sauerkraut,
Soy sauce production,
Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry Food borne infections and intoxications,
Mycotic poisoning and mycotoxins,
Prevention of food borne outbreaks,
Laboratory testing of food borne outbreaks.
Lab methods for the analysis of microbiological quality of milk and food.
Methods for the detection of aflatoxin
✦ Module 6 -Industrial Microbiology
Types of fermentation: Batch,
dual and multiple,
submerged and solid substrate fermentation.
Isolation and screening of industrially useful microorganisms,
Primary and secondary screening,
Strain improvement- methods used,
Inoculum development Fermenter parts,
design and construction.
Antifoam agents and devices.
Bioreactors used for solid state fermentation Sterilization of media and fermenters Downstream processing-methods used,
cell harvesting techniques,
Solid –liquid separation,
Cell disruption techniques,
Purification of microbial products-
methods used Microbial processes for the production of alcoholic beverages –
processes for the production of acetone,
lactic acid and baker’s yeast Microbial processes for the production of penicillin and alkaloids.
Microbial production of vitamins and amino acids.
Microbial transformation of steroids.
Microbes in mineral leaching and metal concentration,
Microbial enhanced oil recovery,
Microbial enzyme technology industrially useful microbial enzymes.
Immobilization of enzymes and cells- methods used
✦ Module 7 – Medical Microbiology
Pathogenicity and laboratory identification of bacteria –
Mycobacterium and Treponema Properties,
Pathogenicity and laboratory identification of -Pseudomonas,
Leptospira and Actinomycetes Properties,
pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of diseases caused by important human viruses – V-Z virus,
Dengue and SARSCoV-2 Mycoses,
pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of superficial,
subcutaneous and systemic fungal infections.
Opportunistic fungal infections.
Life cycle and pathogenesis of protozoan diseases-
Malaria and Leishmaniasis
✦ Module 8- Dairy Microbiology
|Milk – composition and classes of milk, |
Factors influencing microbial growth in milk,
antibacterial properties and system of milk.
Defects and spoilage of milk Preservation of milk and milk products –
methods used and principle involved,
removal of microorganisms,
high and low temperature,
chemical and bio preservatives and food additives Market milk and milk products,
condensed and dry milk products,
Fermented Dairy Products,
Starter cultures used,
butter and indigenous dairy products of India –
probiotic dairy products Milk-
borne diseases and pathogens transmitted through milk and milk products.
Quality analysis of milk-
alkaline phosphatase test,
clot on boiling test,
butter fat content test –
FSSAI standards of milk
✦ Module 9 -Fermentation technology
|Microbial growth and growth kinetics- |
specific growth rate,
substrate saturation constant,
Fed batch culture maintenance coefficient,
Product yield, growth depended products non growth linked products.
Death Kinetics Bioreactor Parts –
function of each part, probes,
values, agitators aerators,
baffles, Reactor performance,
oxygen transfer in reactor system ,
Resistances against oxygen transfer,
methods to estimate KLa.
Heat transfer in Bioreactor systems.
Overall heat transfer coefficient.
Instrumentation of bioreactor online and offline control.
Load cells Control of Bioreactor,
Types of control,
Feed forward control,
complex control systems,
PID control systems.
Computer application on the control of Bioreactor Isolation and purification of enzymes,
Characterization of enzymes,
Application of enzymes in bioprocess-
application of lactase in diary industry,
use of proteases in food,
leather and detergent industry.
Diagnostic and therapeutic enzymes
✦ Module 10 -Bioinstrumentation
|Principle, Instrument Design, |
Methods and Applications of UV-Visible spectroscopy,
Nuclear magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.
Principle, Instrument Design,
methods and Applications of Chromatography-
Thin layer chromatography,
High Performance Thin layer Chromatography,
Gel filtration chromatography,
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.
Reversed phase chromatography,
Hydrophobic interaction chromatography,
Counter current chromatography,
Fast protein liquid chromatography,
Two dimensional chromatography.
GC-MS, LC-MS/MS Principle,
Methodology and Applications of Electrophoresis –
Poly Acrylamide gel electrophoresis,
SDS PAGE, Capillary electrophoresis,
Centrifugation and Ultracentrifugation-
principle, types and applications.
Principle and working of Compound microscope,
Phase contrast microscope,
Interference microscope ,
Fluorescence microscope ,
Polarizing microscope ,
Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy,
Atomic force microscopy and Confocal microscopy.